1 July 1863
Location: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Sides: Union and Confederate
Corps: Seven and Three
Soldiers: 93,921 and 71,699
General George Meade (Sixth Union Commanding General to this point in the Union Army)
General Robert E. Lee (First and Only Commanding General in the Confederate Army)
General John Buford, US Cavalry
General John Reynolds, Union Corps Commander
General Henry Heth, Confederate Division Commander
General J.E.B. Stuart, Lee's cavalry general and reconnaisance/intelligence bureau.
Background: Robert E. Lee, in Stuart's absence, moves his army north in a roundabout attempt to take Washington DC. He is unaware of the position of the Union Army corps, moving blindly through enemy territory.
Union Cavalry General John Buford spots the Confederate Army's movements 30 June outside of Gettysburg. He deploys his men to take the high ground around the small Pennsylvania hamlet and sends couriers to Corps Commanders John Reynolds and Winfield Scott Hancock for reinforcements.
|Overview of First Day of Battle|
Trigger Event—July 1, 1863: Two brigades from Confederate General Henry Heth's division march into Gettysburg to secure the town and a supply of shoes rumored to be stashed in one of the factories. They clash with Buford's defenses.
By late afternoon Buford's men are hard put to defend against the rest of Heth's division, some thousands of men. General Reynolds brings his corps up and is killed the same afternoon in battle.
Casualties, 1 July 1863: